Pinot Noir Suitcase Clone “828”: An Intriguing Story Revealed
“It’s like a black dog. It (upright "828") doesn’t have the papers - the pedigree of a
black Labrador retriever - but it’s a good hunter (producer).”
Joel Myers, Vinetenders and Siltstone Wines, Oregon
The following people offered invaluable information for this article based on their experience with suitcase clone "828," and in some
cases, their personal association with Gary Andrus.
Adam Lee (Siduri), Anna Metzinger (Archery Summit Estate), Chad Melville (Melville Vineyards & Winery), Dick Erath (formerly Erath
Winery), John Haeger (North American Pinot Noir and Pacific Pinot Noir), Eric Hickey (Laetitia Winery & Vineyards), Jason Drew (Drew
Family Cellars), Jean Yates (retailer, Avalon Wine, Corvallis, Oregon), Joel Myers (Vinetenders & Siltstone Wines), Kathleen Inman (Inman Family Wines), Laurent Audeguin (French Wine &
Vine Institute), Laurent Montalieu (Hyland Estates, Soléna), Leigh Bartholomew (Archery Summit Estate), Michael Sullivan (Benovia),
Paul Lato (Paul Lato Wines), Peter Cargasacchi (Cargasacchi Wines), Sam Tannahill (A to Z Winery, Rex Hill Winery), Stewart Johnson
(Kendric Vineyards), and Ted Lemon (Littorai). Special thanks to David Adelsheim (Adelsheim Vineyard), who was the inspiration for
this article, and whose encyclopedic and intimate knowledge of Oregon’s wine industry history provided invaluable information and
critical editorial contributions.
An understanding of clones and related terminology is central to this article. For those who need a concise refresher before reading this
story, refer to the appendix at the end.
Some Pinot Noir Arrives By Suitcase
All Pinot Noir cultivars existing in the United States originally came from France, but many of these imports that
arrived in the 1930s and 1940s were infected with viruses. To control this problem, the Foreign Quarantine
Notices of 1948 (Part 319.27 of the USDA Plant Quarantine regulations) “ended uncontrolled importation of
clonal plant materials” and prohibited “importation or entry into the United States of any Vitis vinifera, except
with a permit.” The Quarantine Notice also required a post-entry quarantine period for grapevines, conducted
by a permit-holding plant pathologist. These regulations allowed grapes to enter the United States for
experimental or scientific purpose, but they could not be released until they were tested for viruses. Because
of inadequate funding and staffing at the USDA facility, there was virtually an embargo on the introduction of
new grape selections by the government for several years.
In 1952, Dr. Harold Olmo, a UC Davis faculty member in the Viticulture and Enology Department, formed the
California Grape Certification Association to find, maintain and distribute correctly labeled grape stock that had
been thoroughly virus-tested and chosen for vigor and fruitfulness. By 1958, the program was combined with
the UC Davis disease-tested fruit and nut program to become the Foundation Plant Materials Service (FPMS).
In 2003, “Materials” was dropped and the name shortened to Foundation Plant Service (FPS). This was the
first source of virus tested, certified stock available to winegrowers in the United States.
From the early 1950s until 1988, most of the grapes imported into the United States were controlled by UC
Davis. The FPMS program at UC Davis was in hiatus from 1989 until 1993 when the National Grapevine
Importation and Clean Stock Facility was opened at FPMS and imports into UC Davis were resumed. Several
selections of Pinot Noir were imported from France and Switzerland, including Pommard (UCD 5) and
Wädenswil (UCD 1A). These became the workhorse clones in Oregon vineyards during the 1970s and 1980s.
During the 1970s, there was widespread interest in clonal diversity, and John Haeger (North American Pinot
Noir, 2004) notes, “A wave of interest in clonal selection swept through the pinot-oriented winemaking
communities in both states” (California and Oregon). While the FPMS was concerning itself primarily with
screening, testing and certifying grape stock, winegrowers were interested in the diversity of clonal material
being investigated and available in France. Charles Coury was one of the first Oregonians to recognize the
French work with clones, having worked as an intern at the National Institute for Agronomy Research in
Colmar, Alsace, France, years before in 1964. In 1974, David Adelsheim, founder of Adelsheim Vineyard,
spent time at the Lycée Agricole in Beaune, which had the responsibility for testing the Chardonnay clones
selected by Dr. Raymond Bernard, a University of Dijon viticultural researcher. Bernard worked under several
agencies with the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries in Dijon and was also leading a much bigger program
selecting several hundred Pinot Noir clones. Many California winegrowers and winemakers also made
pilgrimages to France to discover the diversity of clones available.
Oregon State University obtained its own permit to import clonal material from European selection programs in
1975 thanks to a push from David Adelsheim and others. Adelsheim arranged the earlier shipments of clones
from Colmar (1975), Espiguette (1976) and Geisenheim (1978). In 1984, Dr. David Heatherbell, Professor of
Enology at Oregon State University persuaded Dr. Bernard at the Office National Interprofessional des Vins
(ONIVINS) to share some of his Pinot Noir and Chardonnay clones with Oregon. The first Dijon clones of Pinot
Noir (113, 114, 115) were brought legally into Oregon in 1984. The second set of shipments of Pinot Noir
clones (667, 777), were sent in 1988 as a result of a subsequent trip by Adelsheim. Chardonnay clones 76, 95
and 96 were also part of these first shipments of clones. The French Dijon clones were first shared with FPMS
in California in 1988-89. This program at Oregon State University was eventually discontinued upon the
retirement of the permit holder less than ten years later.
The laboratory technicians at Oregon State University had nicknamed the imported cuttings, “Dijon clones,”
after the return address on a shipping container of clones from Dijon, France. The name quickly became part
of viticulture lexicon. Dijon clones imported into the United States are designated by numbers assigned by the
French Ministry of Agriculture known as the Comité technique permanent de la sélection (Committee of
Selection of Cultivated Plants or CTPS) and include the most widely planted CTPS clones 113, 114, 115, 667,
and 777 (and more recently 459 and 943). FPMS assigned the same 3-digit numbers to the Dijon clones.
Charles Coury was presumably the first to smuggle cuttings into Oregon after working at INRA, Colmar, Alsace,
France, in 1964. A number of winegrowers and winemakers, primarily in California, and to a much lesser
extent in Oregon, did the same. Since the cuttings were often wrapped in wet newspaper and put inside a
suitcase, they became known as “suitcase” or “Samsonite” clones. Trench coats were also reputedly a favorite
accessory useful for smuggling cuttings into the United States. Haeger noted, “During the 1980s and 1990s,
illicit imports of grapevine budwood thrived.” These cuttings were field selections and not clones per se. Many
of the smuggled selections became the source of the so-called “suitcase” clones which formed the basis of the
heritage clones of Pinot Noir (Mount Eden, Swan, Chalone, Calera, Hanzell, etc.) now widely planted in
It is nearly impossible to verify the lineage of suitcase clones since the original smugglers have been
understandably reluctant to admit to their transgression for legal and professional reasons. The French are
highly protective of their vineyard names and by the mid 1990s, they threatened legal action against any
Americans who were found to be using grapevine cuttings from their famous vineyards, especially if they were
vocal about it. Many rumors arose of suitcase material from such famous vineyards as La Tâche and
Romanée-Conti (so-called DRC clones) planted in California vineyards, but no one admitted to such a source
for fear of violating French intellectual property law, not to mention United States importation laws. The
plantings are simply referred to as suitcase or heritage clones in the viticulture trade and wine publications
There is one suitcase clone, “828,” that is of great interest to Oregonians, and whose origin can be traced to a
single individual and winery, Gary Andrus and Archery Summit Estate. The complete and intriguing story of
“828” has never been revealed. I decided to research the pedigree of the “828” suitcase clone, but found that
some historic details could not be obtained because the central figure in this story, Gary Andrus, had passed
away, and those who knew him well and had first hand relevant information, could not reveal or confirm it
because of concerns over violating French intellectual property law and United States importation law. The
names of some of those who were intimately involved with the story as well as some particulars shall forever
remain off the record. In spite of these limitations, I offer a nearly full account of the lineage of suitcase clone
The Real Dijon 828 First Appears and Eventually Emerges From Quarantine
The vineyards in the Côte d’Or in the late 1950s were performing poorly due to viral infestation, late harvests,
and archaic viticultural practices. The French had practiced selection massale in establishing and maintaining
their vineyards. The vignerons in Burgundy were generally dissatisfied with the quality of their wines and in
need of urgent assistance.
Dr. Raymond Bernard and other researchers of the late 1950s, conceived the idea of “clonal selection,” that is,
taking cuttings from vines showing no evidence of viral disease, yet possessing desirable characteristics to
create “mother” vines. These mother vines would then be used to establish new healthy vineyards and thereby
improve the quality of Pinot Noir and Chardonnay wines in Burgundy. Initially, Bernard’s ideas were scorned by
many vignerons in Burgundy and he was forced to use his own money and resources to conduct experimental
research in a vineyard in the Hautes Côtes. One vigneron who did support Bernard was Jean-Marie Ponsot,
who offered budwood from his vines in Morey-St.-Denis from his Clos-de-la-Roche vineyard as a source of
material for Bernard’s early Pinot Noir clonal trials. These cuttings were planted in an experimental vineyard at
Mont-Battois and from this stock came Dijon clones 113, 114 and 115 (certified in 1971), 667 (1980), 777
(1981), and others. The clones were descended from individual plants that were the most rewarding clones
showing disease resistance, good flavors, reasonable yields and proper ripening in Burgundy’s cool climate.
Over time, Bernard expanded his research, obtained cuttings from many vineyards in the Côte d’Or and
beyond, and not only planted vines in his experimental vineyard, but also in the vineyards of the Lycée Viticole
de Beaune (the seat of learning for viticulture and vinification for Burgundy’s wine industry). Bernard eventually
received the support of the French Ministry of Agriculture and other professional societies in France, leading to
increased funding of his research. He became the regional director of the Office National Interprofessional des
Vins (ONIVINS), the French National Wine Office. Bernard is considered the father of Dijon clones of
Pinot Noir and Chardonnay.
Clone 828 is one of 43 currently certified Dijon clones of Pinot Noir in the Catalogue of Grapevine Varieties and
Clones published by ENTAV-INRA® (L’Establissement National Technique pour l’Ameléioration de la
Viticulture/Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, France). The ENTAV-INRA® trademarked clones
are registered and assigned a unique certification number by ONIVINS after approval by CTPS. The clonal
numbers are not of any special significance other than an accession number as each new selection has been
added to the CTPS system. All plants with a unique certification number were propagated from the same
parent mother vine, underwent ten years on average of rigorous testing and research before becoming
certified. The origin and authenticity of the clones is guaranteed.
The pages of the 1995 edition of the Catalogue des Variétés et Clones de Vigne Cultivés en France list clone
828 as originating in Saône-et-Loire, a large department of France in the Côte d’Or and dating its registration to
1985 (refer to copy of entry below). Clone 828 has a recumbent or prostrate growth habit and is part of the
family of Pinot fin clones (sometimes referred to as Pinot tordu clones) that include Dijon 113, 114, 667, 777, etc, to
distinguish them from Pinot droît clones of Pinot Noir such as 374 and 583 which display an upward growth
pattern from the vine trunk. In an unhedged vineyard, Pinot droît clones are easily distinguishable from Pinot fin
clones which fall over. This distinction is central to the story of suitcase clone “828” because it is an upright
Pinot droît selection (more on this to follow).
Dijon clone 828 was never legally released in the United States. Rather it was kept in quarantine because it
was found to be infected with GLRaV-2RG, a grapevine red globe virus variant (often referred to as LR2RG,
GRGV or in common parlance, Red Globe, which is used in this article). Red Globe is one of several virus
strains belonging to the family Closteroviridae mainly associated with the grapevine leafroll disease complex.
This virus influences graft incompatibilities, bunch structure and fruit set. Haeger told me that once Red Globe
was discovered at UC Davis, ENTAV retested their mother vines and found they also tested positive for Red
Globe so they stopped distribution in France and everywhere else. Before that, 828 had been popular in
southern Burgundy in the Maconnais, although it was originally selected for northern Burgundy according to
Laurent Audeguin of the French Institute of Vine and Wine.
Heager has never found a credible report of real Dijon 828 having been suitcased to North America. “For my
money, there is no real 828 in North America until someone can point to vines with a recumbent growth habit
that test positive for Red Globe.” Adam Lee, proprietor and winemaker at Siduri Wines in Santa Rosa,
California, believes there is something out there in California being touted as true 828, but is unaware of any vines that have been verified as true 828.
True 828 has been brought into Canada through a Canadian nursery from France by Grant Stanley, the
winemaker at Quail’s Gate Winery in British Columbia. Adelsheim contacted him for confirmation and Stanley
told him that it was a recumbent clone and has low levels of Red Globe. The Dijon 828 clone is blended with
other Pinot Noir clones in Quail’s Gate Family Reserve Pinot Noir.
New Zealand has had experience with true clone 828. Several in New Zealand acquired true clone 828
fraudulently and have made single clone wines that reportedly “have shown to be by far the most complete
clonal wine in terms of flavor of all the earlier series of Dijon clones” (Marlborough Winepress, June 2010).
Riversun Nursery, a French licensee, reports that 828 has undergone graft compatibility trials on all the main
rootstocks used in New Zealand and has been signed off by ENTAV-INRA® for release. The nursery describes
the clone as having medium fertility with small clusters, high sugars and high polyphenol content, good keeping
qualities, and smaller bunches than 115 and 777 and slightly less productive (see copy of entry from ENTAV-INRA
In Australia, the Dijon clones are commonly referred to as “Bernard clones,” after Raymond Bernard. 828 was
imported in 2008, released from quarantine in Australia in 2010, and will be commercially available in 2015.
Nick Dry, who is in charge of Yalumba Nursery in Australia, reports the following characteristics of clone 828: medium to
high polyphenols and anthocyanin production, low to medium yield and bunch weight, medium to low berry
size, and medium bunch number; wines are balanced, aromatic (intense and fruity), round and full, and have
good aging potential.
My good friend, David Lloyd, the proprietor and winemaker at Eldridge Estate in the Mornington Peninsula region
of Australia sent me a photo of Laurent Audeguin, a Frenchman who developed the Dijon clones after Bernard.
David, who calls himself the “clone ranger,” is pouring him a glass of 828!
True Dijon 828 is newly available from the UC Davis FPS Foundation Vineyard this year according to
Adelsheim (http://fpms.ucdavis.edu/WebSitePDFs/Price&VarietyLists/GrapeNewSelectionList.pdf.) It is a
cleaned-up version of the original ENTAV-INRA® clone using micro shoot tip culture, and no longer has the
Red Globe virus. True Dijon 828 should be commercially available in California and Oregon within two years.
The Story of Upright “828” Begins with Gary Andrus
Gary Andrus graduated with a degree in organic chemistry from Brigham Young University, became a world class
downhill skier, and competed for the U.S. Olympic team. He obtained a master’s degree from Oregon
State University, and a PhD in Oenology from the University of Montpellier in France, followed by work in
Bordeaux. Andrus was a partner in a Copper Mountain, Colorado, ski resort, and when he sold his shares, he
used the profits in 1978 to found Pine Ridge Winery in Napa Valley in partnership with his wife Nancy.
Andrus was quite fond of Oregon Pinot Noir, and in 1992 he purchased a property in the Dundee Hills of
Oregon. The following year, he established Archery Summit Estate on the site, adjacent Domaine Drouhin
Oregon, and released the winery’s first vintage of Pinot Noir. A gravity-fed winery with subterranean caves was
completed in 1995.
The prestige and visibility of Oregon Pinot Noir was quickly given a boost by Andrus, who pushed for quality
and higher prices for Oregon Pinot Noir. He was a driven, competitive and talented winemaker described as
“possessing a large, boisterous personality, yet one who became laser focused in the winery,” by long time
Oregon wine retailer Jean Yates. Close friend and winemaker associate, Sam Tannahill, who worked under
Andrus at Archery Summit from 1995 to 2002, said, “Andrus had winemaking in his DNA.” Tannahill called him
“demanding, impetuous, and one who pushed boundaries.” Winemaker Josh Bergström, who was mentored
by Andrus, called him “a very complex personality, a bon vivant, and driven businessperson and winemaker.”
He was an avid outdoors man, developing a passion for fly fishing while in Oregon, and taught people to
Andrus introduced wood fermenters to Oregon which contributed depth, weight and silky textures to Pinot Noir,
used whole cluster ferments, and preferred a high concentration of new oak. He produced some of the highest
rated and expensive Oregon Pinot Noirs of the time. Within a few years of launching Archery Summit Estate,
he released the first Oregon premium Pinot Noir priced at $100.
Upon his divorce from his spouse Nancy in 2001, Andrus sold his remaining interest in Pine Ridge Winery and
Archery Summit Estate and retired from the wine business. Shortly thereafter, he remarried (his third spouse,
Christine, was a former wine sales associate from Colorado), had another child (he had four previous children
with his first and second wives), and reemerged with a new winery, Gypsy Dancer Estates, named after his
new baby girl Gypsy. The photo below (courtesy of Jean Yates) shows Gary, Gypsy and Christine.
He bought the Lion Valley Vineyards in Cornelius, Oregon, acquired a vineyard and set up a winery in Central
Otago, New Zealand (Christine Lorraine Estate), and began to produce Pinot Noir from Central Otago and the
Willamette Valley, releasing his first wines from the 2002 vintage from purchased and Estate fruit in 2003 and
2004. Unfortunately, financial challenges ensued and he was forced to abandon Gypsy Dancer Estates in 2006.
Andrus passed away from complications of pneumonia in 2009 at the age of 63. He will always be
remembered as a champion of Oregon wine, but one of his important legacies will be the Pinot Noir upright
clone “828” which is now widely planted in Oregon and California vineyards. One can only surmise how he
might tell the story of the lineage of the vine cutting that he brought into Oregon that become known as “828,”
so I have asked numerous winegrowers, winery owners and winemakers who knew Andrus to contribute their
first hand knowledge in an attempt to reprise this intriguing bit of history.
Andrus Brings Cuttings from Burgundy into Oregon that Become Known as “828”
There are several reliable accounts that recall when Andrus had bought property in the Dundee Hills and
laid the foundation for Archery Summit Estate in 1992-1993, he traveled to Burgundy on a number of occasions,
and brought illicit Pinot Noir vine cuttings back with him. The urban legend reported by Laurent Montalieu, the
spouse of Danielle Andrus-Montalieu, Andrus’ daughter, and Anna Matzinger, the current winemaker at Archery
Summit Estate, and others, is that the cuttings were brought back hidden inside a London Fog trench coat.
The cuttings were planted at Archery Summit Estate vineyards. One of the cuttings was found to be superior
and was eventually designated AS2 or ASW2. Between 1997 and 2001, cuttings of ASW2 went to Oregon and California
sites as well as a nursery in Sonoma County. Soon other nurseries in Oregon and California started growing
and selling it as well. Notable Pinot Noir producers in California, and a few in Oregon, bought “828” vines from
a nursery in Sonoma. There were no limits on its propagation since it did not come from ENTAV-INRA® in
France and was not imported by FPMS in California. At some point ASW2 took on the name “Dijon clone 828,”
at a time when the true 828 clone was in quarantine at FPMS in California and at ENTAV-INRA® in France,
and had never been officially released to North America due to infestation with Red Globe virus.
The details beyond these accounts become a bit murky and there are various versions of what cultivars Andrus brought to
Oregon from France. There are rumors that budwood from at least one suitcased selection other than ASW2,
also originating from Archery Summit Estate and presumably either ASW1 or ASW3, was planted in California.
It has been identified as a Pinot fin variety (possibly true 828 or even 115). How ASW2 eventually became
known as “Dijon 828” is of great interest, but unfortunately no definite clarification is forthcoming.
Ted Lemon, currently the proprietor and winemaker for Littorai in Sebastopol, California, was the original
consultant for Archery Summit Estate during its first five years of existence. Lemon laid out the vineyard blocks and chose the rootstock and clonal combinations. He told me the following.
“Gary and I made several trips to France during those days to look at clones and all things Pinot Noir. I made it
clear to Gary that I would not participate in any suitcase importations. He did those on his own, although I do
know of several trips which I suspect that he brought wood back without telling me. Some of that wood may
have been simply grabbed in a famous vineyard and some may have been specific selections. Several
selections were planted at Archery Summit including “828” and “La Tache.” In those days, the follow through at
Archery Summit may not always have been as complete as one might hope and it is possible, as often
happens, that some labeling may have been done incorrectly. Between those issues and virus questions, I
believe Archery Summit terminated the program, at least for what Gary called “La Tache.”
“I evaluated the performance of those selections over several years during my work with Archery Summit, and
subsequently sourced budwood that would become the Littorai version of the “828” plantings. We call it ‘fake
828.’ I have had several nursery people look at the Littorai version of “828,” including Pierre Marie Guillaume
of Guillaume Nursery in France, one of the premier nurserymen in that country. Lucie Morton has also looked
at it for us. The CA “828” is a fertile, upright clone, two characteristics that true 828 doesn’t share. Pierre-
Marie’s sense was that CA “828” is probably something like ENTAV-INRA® 583, an upright, but quality Pinot
Noir clone. Now where Gary grabbed it is a good question. No doubt DNA analysis could reveal the true
origin, but I am happy to grow it as CA “828.”
Lemon speculates that when Gary’s selections arrived in the United States, the labels became switched since
what was called “La Tache,” was more reminiscent of true 828. This is only educated speculation since no
work has been done to verify this.
David Adelsheim, who founded Adelsheim Vineyard in 1972 with his spouse Ginny, is an iconic figure in
Oregon wine and a respected spokesperson on Pinot Noir clones in Oregon. A vineyard person who formerly worked at
Archery Summit Estate during its founding and early establishment was later hired by Adelsheim Vineyard.
The vineyardist told Adelsheim the following version of the history of the vine cuttings suitcased into Oregon by
Andrus, which differs from Lemon’s account in a few details.
The vineyard person accompanied Andrus on trips to Burgundy where cuttings were taken from a vine in two
Domaine de la Romanée-Conti vineyards, Romanée-Conti and La Tâche, as well as Le Musigny. Those
cuttings were brought back and propagated at a nursery in Sonoma County, and subsequently planted at
Archery Summit. Apparently the Romanée-Conti and Le Musigny vines had serious virus infestation and were
eventually discarded. The La Tâche vines either had mild virus issues that were cleaned up at the Sonoma
nursery or were clean enough without those measures. The progeny of the La Tâche cutting is now called AS2
or ASW2 and is planted at Archery Summit as well as numerous other Oregon and California vineyards,
including Adelsheim Vineyard.
Adelsheim confirms that ASW2 is a Pinot droît selection that grows upright, and in a non hedged vineyard, can
easily be distinguished from all other normally used Pinot Noir clones which fall over. It does not have Red
Globe virus, and he doubts it ever did have that virus.
Anna Matzinger joined Archery Summit Estate as an assistant winemaker in 1999, and became the winemaker
upon the departure of Sam Tannahill in 2002. Leigh Bartholomew is Archery Summit’s viticulturist who is
familiar with the winery’s records. Their version of the provenance of ASW2 is as follows. “Urban legend has it
that Andrus returned from a trip to France in the mid-1990s with three Pinot Noir cuttings which were
propagated in a demonstration vineyard at the winery as well as other estate vineyard sites. The clones made
the trans-Atlantic journey sewn into the hem of a London Fog coat. Given that the owner of the coat had a flair
for the dramatic, what actually transpired is anyone’s guess. The cuttings were known in-house as ASW1,
ASW2, and ASW3. ASW2 was preferred over time and was subsequently sold as budwood. ASW2 has not
tested positive for Red Globe.”
Sam Tannahill could not speak to the provenance of “828” (ASW2) at Archery Summit Estate (he said he did
not join the winery until 1995 and was not around when the cuttings were secured), but did confirm that it was upright growing. He reported that a DNA test was performed that confirmed that ASW2 was Pinot Noir (they
thought it might be Gamay Beaujalois, another upright selection). When he was the winemaker at Archery
Summit, there were four “interesting” clones: “true” 828 (supposedly from Guillaume in France), a La Tâche
clone, a Romanée-Conti clone, and a Musigny clone. He is unclear about which, if any, of these clones are still
in the ground at Archery Summit Estate. Matzinger told me that Archery Summit Estate currently has about 5
acres of ASW2 out of a total of 110 acres currently in production.
John Haeger has written two well-researched books which have become standard references for reliable
information on Pinot Noir, and particularly Pinot Noir clones: North American Pinot Noir (2004) and Pacific Pinot
Noir (2008). In the latter book, he weighs in on the history of Archery Summit Estate and the lineage of ASW2.
Haeger visited Archery Summit Estate in 2000 and talked with Andrus. The ASW designations were not
discussed and Haeger had the impression that they did not yet exist. None of the selections were identified to
Haeger as 828. Haeger’s discussions several years later with Leigh Bartholomew revealed the ASW
designations. Something reportedly from Romanée Conti was designated ASW1; something said to have
originated from La Tâche was designated ASW2; and something said to have come from Le Musigny was
designated ASW3. Presumably, the AS designations eliminated the need to say what the Burgundian source
was for each. The ASW2 proved to have the least virus issues and at some point ASW1 and ASW3, which
were heavily infested with viruses during trials at Argyle, were destroyed.
According to Haeger, ASW2 was first established in a demonstration block adjacent the Archery Summit Estate
winery, followed by plantings at Block 1 at Renegade Ridge and Block 21 at Red Hills and Looney. “He
(Andrus) was not at all circumspect or reticent about the sources of the selections he had personally imported
illegally and planted on Renegade Ridge. In fact, that is how Renegade Ridge was named, or at least so Gary
said: the spot where he planted the objects of his “renegade” activity. At that time (2000), the selections at
Renegade Ridge were known for their sources: La Tâche, La Romanée-Conti and Le Musigny. None of the
selections were identified to me as 828." 828 was not a particularly hot topic at the time and Haeger did not
delve deeply into it. Haeger confirms the upright growth habit of ASW2.
Haeger approaches the question of how ASW2 became known as Dijon 828 as follows. “For reasons that are
not entirely clear, but apparently stem from conversations Andrus allegedly had with some of the vintners and
growers who obtained cuttings, some ASW2, propagated in other vineyards, and redistributed by nurseries,
has come to be known as Dijon (or CTPS) 828, even though it almost certainly is not. As this incorrect identity
has become clear, some growers have begun to call it faux-828 instead.”
Haeger recalls that Bartholomew found no evidence in the Archery Summit Estate records of any vine cuttings
provided to third parties ever identified by Archery Summit Estate, in writing, as 828. “This identification seems
to have been made by third parties, though some of these parties say that Andrus told them so. It’s hard for
me to believe that Gary actually thought any of his suitcase selections was 828. None of the source vineyards
in France were planted to known clones as far as I know.” In deference to that remark, remember that Ted
Lemon reported that he believed Andrus grabbed cuttings from both famous vineyards and specific selections.
Adelsheim has bought “828” from Sunridge Nursery in California and planted it side-by-side with ASW2 taken
from Archery Summit. They look identical. He plans to make wine from them separately from the 2012
The question of how ASW2 became known as “828” will probably never been answered. We know that ASW2
made very respectable wine. Adelsheim notes, “At some point after 2000, he (Andrus) started offering barrel
samples of a wine made from “828.” It tasted good. We had no reason to doubt that he had brought it in to the
United States in a suitcase.” Dijon clone 828 was not in the United States, but when initially released in
France, 828 quickly became a popular clone in Burgundy and received a grade of “A” from its “potentielle de
production,” according to Adelsheim. Stateside Pinot Noir producers were alert for the next “hot” Dijon clone
(“Make mine Dijon please” was the era’s catch phrase), and reports on 828 from France were enticing.
Matzinger said she does not know exactly how ASW2 became known as 828 but she expressed to me a
plausible explanation. “Perhaps Andrus knew it to be 828, thought it to be 828, or simply wanted it to be 828.”
Montalieu, like many others I spoke with, reiterated that he had no idea how ASW2 became designated as 828,
but said that 828 was a hot clone in Burgundy at the time, at the forefront you could say, and Andrus could
have assumed he had 828. He may have attempted to procure true 828, but unknowingly got something else.
Dick Erath told me, “Knowing Gary, he probably thought he had the real thing.” It does not appear that potential threats from the French deterred Andrus, at least initially, from naming the cuttings he brought into the country
illegally. One could speculate that for someone who was intent on building on the visibility of Archery Summit
Estate and Oregon Pinot Noir, Andrus may have seen the chance to be the first to have clone 828 as a way of
attracting admiration from his colleagues, a feather in his cap so to speak.
Matzinger reports that after Andrus’ retirement from Archery Summit Estate in 2001, any budwood sold by Archery Summit Estate was
labeled ASW2 and previous purchasers were notified of the name change. Nurseries now list and offer "828" in
their catalogues, but clearly inform buyers that it is not the real Dijon 828 clone.
Faux “828” Takes On Other Names and is Characterized
ASW2 has taken on many tags over time. I have already mentioned faux “828,” suitcase “828,” and CA “828.”
Some call it the “Viagra clone” because of its upright growth. Others term it the “Don King clone” for the same
reason. Joel Myers likes to reference it as the “black dog clone,” because it doesn’t have the pedigree (not
certified) of a Black Labrador Retriever which is a good hunter, but is just as good a producer. It has also been
named the “gumboot clone,” for obvious reasons.
Winegrowers and winemakers who have worked with faux “828” generally agree it is a good producer and can
perform well at sites with marginal climate. Haeger points out that most Pinot droît selections are prolific
bearers but the grapes are often of mediocre quality. Jean-Michel Boursiquot, ampelographer and former
director of ENTAV, concurs and has said, “The more upright clones are considered to produce inferior wines.”
Despite these incriminations, some Pinot droît cultivars, including faux “828,” have performed well in the United
Ted Lemon has described his experience with CA “828” as positive. “Once it is cleaned up of viruses (what came to
Oregon had other viruses besides Red Globe), it is a productive, vigorous vine which performs well under
challenging situations like that found in the Sonoma Coast. It tends to produce well and require some thinning.
Set is not a sure thing and there can be wide variation from year to year. Color is generally good and it tends
to go through veraison late and ripen slightly later than the classic Dijon selections.”
Peter Cargassachi, winegrower and winemaker in Sta. Rita Hills, California, said, “The "828" Pinot droît clone
produces long, loose clusters and resembles clone Mariafeld UCD 23 which is also a Pinot droît clone.”
Jason Drew, of Drew Family Cellars in Elk, Mendocino County, is currently working with two vineyards that
have "828" blocks planted, but the two "828" blocks have obviously different morphology and both are planted on
101-14 rootstock. One selection he works with has small berries and small clusters with shy yields. The
selection typically provides wine with excellent richness and depth. The other "828," which he is
guessing came from Archery Summit, is markedly different concerning the growing stature of the vines. The
berries are significantly large and the clusters are sometimes twice the size of the other 828. The vines are
more vigorous and grow more erect with significant apical dominance. The wine from this "828" has good
intensity but does not have as much tannin and mouth feel as the smaller 828 offers. The more vigorous
version is slower to ripen and has nice mature flavors but is more feminine and delicate without the depth that
the smaller version has. Jason notes, “I would think about blending the faux "828" if I wanted brighter flavors
and lighter tannins. Conversely, I would use the smaller 828 for denser qualities and richer tannin. Ironically,
they would make a very nice pair if blended. Then and only then could you call it ‘one’ 828 instead of two.”
In the photos that follow, taken from California and Oregon vineyards just before harvest, the upright growth
habit of faux "828" is evident. The clusters are long and large and the upright shoot growth helps keep the
clusters hanging free and easily visible. As the clusters take on sugar at the end of harvest, they tend to fall
and this is also visible in the photos, particular the photos from Rosella’s Vineyard.
ASW2 at Archery Summit Estate, Dundee Hills, courtesy of Anna Metzinger
ASW2 at Archery Summit Estate, Dundee Hills, courtesy of Anna Metzinger
Faux “828” at Inman Family Winery, Olivet Grange Vineyard, Russian River Valley, courtesy of Kathleen Inman
Faux “828,” typical giant cluster, 3 days before harvest, Inman Family Winery, Olivet Grange Vineyard, Russian
River Valley, courtesy of Kathleen Inman
Faux “828,” Rosella’s Vineyard, Santa Lucia Highlands, courtesy of Adam Lee
The Wine from Faux “828”
Faux “828,” like many clones, has performed inconsistently depending on the site at which it is planted. As
Haeger points out in North American Pinot Noir, “So for Pinot Noir, despite all the passion for clones and clonal
selection, the mantra remains the old adage about real estate; location, location, location.” Noted winemaker
Merry Edwards, upon establishing her Coopersmith Vineyard on the Laguna Ridge near Sebastopol in the
Russian River Valley, chose to plant 50% of the former 9.5-acre apple orchard in 2001 to faux "828" clone
obtained from Archery Summit Estate. The clone turned out to be a poor match for the terroir, and was
converted to Mount Eden UCD 37 by 2008. Only a few miles northeast, faux “828” has proven to be a stalwart
clone at Inman Family Wines Olivet Grange Vineyard for Kathleen Inman.
The truth, as expressed by viticulturist Joel Myers, is that with faux “828,” “Some like it and some don’t.” Most
agree that it produces intensely flavored wine with very good color. Winemaker Peter Cargasacchi describes
his wine from faux “828” grown in the Sta. Rita Hills as being “dark, succulent, with blackberry and dark cherry
character.” Chad Melville, winemaker at Melville Vineyards and Winery, also in the Sta. Rita Hills, has faux “828” planted both directly
from Archery Summit Estate and Merry Edwards. “They are different visually on the vine and as a wine. The
faux “828” is planted in very sandy soil and has a very pretty lifted aromatic profile of dried roses, dried herbs
along with an elegant mouth feel. The Merry Edwards "828" is planted in a heavier loam and is darker and
Eric Hickey is the winemaker at Laetitia Vineyard & Winery in Arroyo Grande Valley which has a little more than
9 acres of an “828” Pinot droît selection planted. He told me, “The Laetitia flavor profile is known for bright red
fruit characteristics, but “828” is much more of a dark, black fruited, slightly more tannic Pinot Noir, which is a
nice blend to our portfolio. “828” is one of ten Pinot Noir clones that we grow and we release an “828” single
clone wine because many of our house wines are blends of these clones and we try to highlight each clone so
that patrons can learn what these clones bring to the blends and what they are like when grown at Laetitia.”
Adam Lee, winemaker at Siduri Wines in the Russian River Valley, works with vineyards throughout the state of
California and even Oregon, said, “I think it is a bit boring truly. Reminds me of 777 in that it makes a good
middle part of the wine but needs stuff around it to make it interesting. Generally, it ripens later than 777, has
thicker skins (a bit like Martini in that way, though not quite as extreme), and seems to be finely flavored, but
nothing I would recommend anyone plant.”
Stewart Johnson, who farms Kendric Vineyard in Marin County, has faux “828” planted and found it to be the
easiest clone to farm because it grew straight up through the trellis wires with little need for shoot positioning.
It set a big crop and tended to ripen late. He vinified it separately in the past but “the color was pretty light, it
did not show a ton of character, and for me, it was just a filler.” He is not a fan.
Paul Lato, proprietor and winemaker for Paul Lato Wines in Santa Maria Valley only uses “828” in wines for his
consulting client, Hilliard Bruce. From his limited experience, he finds the clone simple, lacking in complexity
and unexciting. He does not envision himself seeking any vineyards to obtain this clone for himself.
Michael Sullivan, winemaker for Benovia Winery in the Russian River Valley told me the following about faux
“828.” “I have worked with the faux “828” and have been more or less happy with the results. It tends to have
more structure (more tannin) with higher acid and color than many Dijon selections. That being said, it is not a
stand-alone clone but a good blender. I also find that I have to thin the crop heavily with faux “828,” as the
clusters are large and the vines can overproduce.”
Most winemakers agree that faux “828” performs best as part of a blend with other clones. For that reason,
single clone wines from faux “828” have rarely been released commercially. I know of examples from Buena
Vista, Del Dotto, Halleck, Laetitia and Melville Vineyards and Winery in California, and Duke’s Family Vineyards
in Oregon. The following two wines were reviewed by me recently. Both wines were pleasant, fruity, and
relatively simple with noticeable tannin and short finishes.
2009 Laetitia Clone 828 Arroyo Grande Valley Pinot Noir
13.9% alc., $32.
Medium reddish-purple color in
the glass. Opens slowly in the glass, revealing aromas of black cherries, black raspberries, prune, spice and
oak. Soft and smooth on the palate, with moderately rich flavors of dark red cherries and berries with a topcoat
of toasty oak. Nicely balanced with firm, but well-integrated tannins. Good.
2006 Halleck Clone 828 Sonoma Coast Pinot Noir
14.2% alc., 266 cases, $55. Sourced from a vineyard
near Annapolis. Aged in 30% new French oak barrels.
Moderately light reddish-purple color in the glass.
Aromas of black cherries, spice and balsam. Flavorful, mid weight, earth-kissed black cherry core with subtle
smoky oak in the background, all wrapped in firm tannins, offering a soft mouth feel, and finishing with a
cherry-fueled note. Good.
* Undocumented grapevines have been brought into the United States from France since the mid-1800s.
Noted winemaker, Tony Soter, said in the past, speaking from a California prospective, “Among men and
women who consider themselves Grail-seekers of Pinot Noir, it is understood that smuggling is part of the
tradition.” In Oregon, because Oregon State University had its own import permit and was willing to bring in
anything winegrowers in Oregon wanted, there was virtually no suitcase smuggling of Pinot Noir clones.
According to Adelsheim, “I have heard only of the Coury rumor and the Andrus selections; nothing else.”
* Gary Andrus, the founder of Pine Ridge Winery in Napa Valley, Archery Summit Estate in the Willamette
Valley, and Gypsy Dancer Estates in Central Otago and the Willamette Valley, smuggled budwood into the
United States from France in the early 1990s that purportedly came from famous Burgundian vineyards. The
true origins of that budwood will never be known.
* The grapevine cuttings that Andrus brought in, sewn into a London Fog coat as urban legend would have it,
were propagated at Archery Summery Estate. One particular cutting, termed ASW2, proved to be the best
performer and the least virused. It was a Pinot droît variety that produced good wine.
* Beginning in 1997, cuttings from ASW2 were widely distributed to wineries and nurseries throughout Oregon
and California. Since the selection was not certified, there were no restrictions on its propagation. At some
point, and for reasons that remain a mystery, ASW2 became known as clone “828.” The true Dijon clone 828
was quarantined in France and at UC Davis because of Red Globe virus. ASW2 never tested positive for Red
* True Dijon 828 is newly available from the UC Davis FPS Foundation Vineyard this year. It is a cleaned-up
version of the original ENTAV-INRA clone, and no longer has the Red Globe virus. Since 2001 when Andrus
sold his interest in Archery Summit Estate, all budwood sold from that source are labeled ASW2 to distinguish it
from “828” and buyers are notified of the name change.
* Currently, the viticulture trade refers to ASW2 as faux “828” or upright “828.” It will be of interest going
forward to see what ASW2 will be called as true 828 becomes available in the United States.
Laurent Deluc, Assistant Professor in the Department of Horticulture at Oregon State University (OSU), is
currently undertaking long-term projects to sequence several Pinot Noir clones, working collaboratively with the
Center for Genomic and Research Biocomputing facilities at OSU. Currently, OSU has the laboratory workflow
and the bioinformatics platform to analyze expression data using RNA Seq technology. It is hoped that ASW2
can be integrated into this large initiative to fully map several Pinot Noir clones. This would, of course, reveal
the true origin of ASW2. Stay tuned.
The word clone is from the Greek word for twig. Clones are separate vines that are genetically identical to a
mother plant. They have the same growth, habit, flavors and ripening time as the vine they come from. Clones
are propagated asexually by taking cuttings or grafts from another vine. Seeds are not suitable for propagation
since after pollination, new seeds are not genetically identical.
The clone of Pinot Noir will determine the flavor profile of the resulting wine along with the effects of terroir such
as soil and microclimate. Clones will have differences in bud break, time of ripening, cluster architecture,
yields, size of berries, fruit quality and other characteristics.
Clones are registered by FPS at UC Davis and certified by ENTAV (Etablissment National Technique pour
l’Amélioration de la Viticulture) in southern France. A certified clone is propagated from the same parent plant,
tested for specific viruses, and kept clean. These certified cloned vines are then named or numbered and
propagated on site and cuttings made available to nurseries.
Cuttings taken from different vines that do not have a common parent, and thus have a diverse genetic heritage, are referred to as selection
massalle or mass selection, or simply selection. For example, none of the so-called heritage or suitcase
“clones” of Pinot Noir planted in California are truly clones. They originally represented multiple cuttings taken
from several vines in a vineyard and thus represent a cultivar or selection. An example is the so-called Swan
“clone” of Pinot Noir which technically should be termed the Swan selection. The Swan selection was brought
to the United States by Paul Masson who reportedly took budwood from Romanée-Conti and planted it in
Saratoga, California. His successor, Martin Ray, planted a new vineyard with cuttings taken from Masson’s
vineyard at what became known as Mount Eden. Joseph Swan, in turn, took cuttings from Martin Ray’s
vineyard, planted them in the Russian River Valley, where over time others took Swan’s budwood and
propagated them throughout California.